Hof van Beroep in Parijs: Aanwezigheid Israël op Westbank is legaal

Palestijnen hebben volgens internationale wetten en verdragen geen recht op het gebied

De Franse president Francois Hollande is één van de politieke gezichten van de Euro-Arabische Alliantie die streeft naar de uiteindelijke uitwissing van Israël en totale islamisering van Europa.

Volledig voorbij gegaan aan zowel steunbetuigers als haters van de kleine Joodse staat is een uitspraak van het Hof van Beroep in Versailles (Parijs) dat de Israëlische aanwezigheid op de omstreden Westbank, dat bestaat uit Judea en Samaria, volgens het internationale recht ondubbelzinnig legaal is. Gisteren organiseerde de Israël-vijandige regering van de Franse socialistische president Hollande nog een nep ‘vredes’conferentie, waarin 72 landen nog maar eens bevestigden dat er in dat hart van Israël een Judenreine Palestijnse moslimstaat moet worden opgericht, en Israël zich achter onverdedigbare ‘grenzen’ moet terugtrekken (3).

 

De uitspraak werd gedaan in het kader van een rechtszaak die de Palestijnen hadden aangespannen tegen Israël vanwege de aanleg van een lightrail verbinding in Jeruzalem, die door de Franse bedrijven Alstom en Veolia is gebouwd.

De prominente advocaat Gilles-William Goldnadel –zeg maar de Franse Geert Jan Knoops-, president van de organisatie ‘Advocaten Zonder Grenzen’, bevestigde dat de uitspraak van het Hof in Versailles niet enkel van toepassing is op de lightrailverbinding, maar op de hele Westelijke Jordaanoever. Voor alle regeringen en groepen die Israël liever vandaag dan morgen zien verdwijnen, is wellicht de meest schokkende conclusie van het Hof dat de Palestijnen -in tegenstelling tot Israël- volgens het internationale wetten geen enkel recht hebben op het gebied.

Palestijnse aanklacht tegen lightrail Jeruzalem

De lightrailverbinding werd in 2011 opgeleverd, en gaat dwars door Jeruzalem naar het zogenaamd ‘bezette’ oostelijke deel van de stad. Daarom diende de PLO –de terreurorganisatie die speciaal voor het Westen vermomd werd als de ‘Palestijnse Autoriteit’ (beide organisaties hebben één en dezelfde leider: Mahmoud Abbas)– een klacht in bij het Hof (Tribunal de Grande Instance) in Versailles.

De Palestijnen redeneerden dat de aanleg van de lightrail tram illegaal was, omdat de VN, de EU en veel organisaties en regeringen hebben besloten dat Israël de ‘illegale bezetter’ is van de ‘Palestijnse gebieden’, inclusief Oost Jeruzalem, en dat de Joodse ‘nederzettingen’ daarom eveneens illegaal zijn. Daarnaast zou Israël illegaal huizen van Palestijnen hebben afgebroken voor de aanleg van de verbinding, en ook het ‘culturele bezit’ van de Palestijnen hebben beschadigd.

Palestijnen kunnen geen beroep doen op niet-ondertekende verdragen

Om te bepalen of de klacht terecht was, dook het Hof in de internationale wetgeving. Voor het eerst sinds 1948 –toen Israël werd opgericht- zou een onafhankelijke, niet-Israëlische rechtbank uitspraak gaan doen over de status van de Westelijke Jordaanoever.

Het Hof van Beroep wees op artikel 43 van de Vierde Haagse Conventie (1907), waarin staat dat zodra de autoriteit over een gebied in de handen komt van een andere bezitter, deze partij de verplichting heeft alles te doen om de openbare orde en veiligheid te herstellen. Het Hof oordeelde tevens dat de Palestijnen de teksten niet goed interpreteren, en dat deze niet van toepassing zijn op de omstreden ‘bezetting’.

Ten eerste zijn alle internationale instrumenten waar de PLO zich op beriep verdragen tussen staten. Noch de PLO, noch de PA zijn een staat, en daarom is niet één van deze legale documenten van toepassing, zo oordeelde het Hof. Individuen en individuele organisaties hebben géén recht om de voordelen van deze instrumenten en wetten te claimen.

Ten tweede zijn de teksten enkel van toepassing op de partijen die deze ondertekend hebben. De PLO en de PA hebben dat nooit gedaan, dus kunnen ze er ook geen beroep op doen.

Irritatie over Palestijnse claims, die allemaal werden vernietigd

Het Hof verborg zijn irritatie over deze poging tot misbruik van het internationale recht door de Palestijnen niet, en stelde dat de wet ‘niet enkel kan worden gebaseerd op de visie van de PLO op een politieke of sociale situatie’. Bovendien ging het betreffende wetsartikel van de Haagse Conventie over bombardementen, en is ook daarom niet van toepassing, omdat ‘Jeruzalem niet gebombardeerd werd’.

De conclusie van het Hof: ‘De PLO kan zich op niet één van deze internationale conventies beroepen. Deze internationale normen en verdragen geven het Palestijnse volk, dat het PLO zegt te vertegenwoordigen, niet het recht om die voor een rechtbank aan te dragen. Het Hof van Beroep veroordeelt de PLO (en de Association France Palestine Solidarité, de mede aanklager) tot het betalen van € 30.000,- aan Alstom, € 30.000,- aan Alstom Transport, en € 30.000,- aan Veolia Transport.’

Omdat de PLO, PA en AFPS niet in beroep gingen bij het Opperste Gerechtshof, is de uitspraak definitief. Daarmee vernietigde een rechtbank voor het eerst alle Palestijnse claims dat de Israëlische ‘bezetting’ van de Westelijke Jordaanoever illegaal is. (1)

Jeruzalem, Westelijke Jordaanoever, Gaza en Golan bezet door Arabieren

De historische feiten tonen aan dat de Westbank en de Oude Stad van Jeruzalem in 1948 door Transjordanië (het latere Jordanië) werden bezet. Dat gebeurde in het kader van de vernietigingsoorlog die de Arabische Liga begon toen Israël met instemming van de VN –dat zich baseerde op een besluit van diens voorloper, de Volkerenbond, en de San Remo resolutie uit 1920- in dat jaar werd opgericht.

Tijdens deze oorlog bezette Egypte de Gazastrook, en Syrië de Golanhoogte. Alle Joden die op de Westbank en in het centrum van Jeruzalem woonden werden vermoord of verdreven door Arabische kolonisten. In 1949 werd een wapenstilstand met bijbehorende tijdelijke grenzen van kracht. Die zijn echter nooit officieel erkend. Desondanks vindt de internationale gemeenschap, buigend voor het antisemitische blok tussen islam en links, dat Israël zich moet terugtrekken achter deze niet-bestaande, onverdedigbare ‘grens’.

In 1967 probeerden enkele Arabische legers de Joodse staat opnieuw te vernietigen. Ook deze oorlog werd door de moslims verloren, maar nu nam Israël de door Jordanië, Egypte en Syrië bezette gebieden in bezit, inclusief Jeruzalem. Er ontstond een nieuwe situatie, en plotseling bleek er een volk te worden verzonnen waar in de hele geschiedenis niet één maal naar verwezen werd: de ‘Palestijnen’, in werkelijkheid bestaande uit kolonisten uit tientallen Arabische landen. Zo was Yasser Arafat, aartsvader van het Palestijnse terrorisme, een Egyptenaar.

De internationale gemeenschap, en met name Europa, heeft er echter zijn zinnen op gezet om het Bijbelse hartland weer van Israël af te pakken en de gedwongen uitzetting van ongeveer 100.000 Joden te eisen, zodat er een Judenreine moslimstaat ontstaat voor een historisch volledig uit de duim gezogen ‘volk’.

Euro-Arabische alliantie tegen Israël en nu ook tegen Europese volken zelf

En waarom? Omdat op de Arabische topconferentie van het OIC in Algiers in 1973 werd besloten om na de derde smadelijke nederlaag tegen Israël (de Yom Kippur oorlog in datzelfde jaar) een olieboycot in te stellen tegen alle landen die zich niet achter de PLO en diens streven naar de totale vernietiging van de Joodse staat ten gunste van ‘Palestina’ zouden opstellen.

Nederland aarzelde, en werd onmiddellijk door een boycot getroffen. De rest van Europa ging vrijwel meteen overstag, en ons land volgde snel.

Vervolgens deed ‘de Euro-Arabische Alliantie haar best om de Israëli’s te criminaliseren… Het naoorlogse Nazi-Islamitische bondgenootschap werd ingeblazen door de Palestijnse haat… Eindeloos lastiggevallen door Europese regeringen en hun legers met dhimmi’s, waren de Israëli’s schuldig vanwege hun bestaan, waar ze zich voor moesten schamen… Hun misdaad? Zij weigerden zicht te vermengen in dhimmitude en te verdwijnen door het opgeven van hun rechten en hun geschiedenis aan een volk dat gecreëerd was door de Euro-Arabische Alliantie (Eurabia) om hen te vervangen,’ schrijft Bat Ye’or voor het Gatestone Institute.

Nu worden ook de Europese volken door dezelfde Alliantie getroffen, doordat ons continent met opzet wordt overspoeld met miljoenen moslimmigranten. Net zoals de Israëliërs moeten worden uitgewist en vervangen door Palestijnen, moeten Nederlanders, Duitsers, Belgen, Fransen en Italianen worden uitgewist en vervangen door moslims uit het Midden Oosten en Noord Afrika.

‘Alleen vrede door volledige erkenning van Israël’

‘Staatshoofden, ministers van Europese zaken, de geestelijkheid, de dhimmi christenen die hun hovelingen waren geworden, boden hun hulp (aan de PLO en de Ummah, de wereldwijde islamitische gemeenschap) aan.’ Zo proberen ze alles van Israël af te pakken, ‘om daardoor een Holocaust te veroorzaken die begon in Europa, zodat er eindelijk een wereld, een mensheid zou ontstaan zonder Israël. De droom van Hitler en de moefti (van Jeruzalem, die met de Nazi’s samenwerkte) zou zijn gerealiseerd.’

Volgens Bat Ye’or is er echter nog steeds hoop, maar die is enkel gebaseerd op de erkenning en legitimiteit van Israëls terugkeer naar haar (complete) thuisland. Deze erkenning brengt automatisch de vernietiging van de jihad tegen christenen en alle niet-moslims met zich mee. ‘Deze erkenning van de legitimiteit van Israëls terugkeer naar haar vaderland is de essentiële voorwaarde van een islamitische vrede met de wereld, omdat het de ideologie van de jihad zal afschaffen. Vrede met Israël garandeert een islamitische vrede met de diversiteit van de wereld.’ (2)

Xander

(1) Dreuz
(2) Gatestone Institute
(3) Breitbart

Bron: http://www.xandernieuws.nl

 

Why we can’t just get along

This happened on Tuesday: Palestinian terrorists spilled oil on highway 443 between Jerusalem and Modi’in and threw rocks and firebombs at passing vehicles, as they do on a regular basis. The IDF responded and opened fire at what they thought were the terrorists, killing one Palestinian teenager and wounding two others. Although all the facts aren’t available as I write this, it appears that the soldiers were mistaken about their target, and the people they shot were innocent.

Palestinians are understandably enraged, but it’s also understandable that an Israeli might ask, “what do they expect?” Every day they try and sometimes succeed to kill Jews with their rocks and firebombs, their cars and knives, and sometimes their guns and explosives. Of course we are going to fight back, and mistakes happen.

But how did we get here, to the point that our peoples are killing each other?

The Arabs and their supporters will tell you “nakba, occupation, blah blah.” That isn’t true. It is a rationalization but it is not an explanation. Here is the explanation in two words:

The PLO.

In 1979, I drove with my wife and two-year old son from Jerusalem to Afula. I took route 60, through Samaria. Today I doubt that we would survive that trip, but when we got lost near Shechem (Nablus), local Arabs gave us directions to get back on the right road. They treated us like guests.

Later, during the first Lebanon war, I had a conversation with an Arab from Abu Ghosh, a town that had chosen to be loyal to Israel in 1948. What is the solution? I asked him. We need a state of our own, he said, but not run by the PLO. They are killers and they don’t care about Arabs either.

The PLO was created in 1964 by the Arab league as a club to beat Israel with. It was taken over by Yasser Arafat’s Fatah faction in 1967. Its policy has always been to ‘liberate Palestine by armed struggle’ (although Arafat claimed during the Oslo period to have changed the PLO charter, this was not actually done).

The PLO was funded and armed by the Soviet Union and carried out numerous terrorist actions against Israel during the 1970s, including the massacre of the Olympic athletes in 1972, the Ma’alot massacre in 1974, the Coastal Road massacre of 1978, and many more. The IDF invaded Lebanon in 1982 in order to eliminate the PLO, and at the end of the war had the PLO fighters and leadership trapped in Beirut. But a European/American brokered agreement allowed them to escape. French Foreign Legion troops and US Marines escorted Arafat onto a ship, and the PLO reestablished its headquarters in Tunis. Ariel Sharon later said that one of the things he most regretted was not killing Arafat when he had the chance.

Although it perpetrated a few terror attacks from Tunis (notably the Achille Lauro hijacking in 1985), the PLO became more and more irrelevant in exile. But in 1993, Israel made the greatest political mistake in its history and signed the Oslo Accords, breathing life back into the PLO.

In January 1993 the PLO was outlawed in Israel and it was even illegal for an Israeli to meet with PLO representatives. But Yossi Beilin, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs under Shimon Peres, began secret negotiations with the PLO without informing the Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin. Rabin only found out about the meetings in May, and although his conception of an acceptable deal with the Palestinians was very different than that of Peres and Beilin, he had no choice but to embrace the negotiations, especially once the Americans became involved.

The Oslo accords recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinians, brought the execrable Arafat and his gangsters back to Israel (first to Gaza and later to Ramallah) and created the Palestinian Authority, a pseudo-government for the territories, run by the PLO.

Arafat immediately proceeded to kill or expel his enemies – including anyone who did not agree with the PLO program to destroy the Jewish state – and to turn the Palestinian Authority into a massive machine, fueled by money from the US, EU and Israel, to train future soldiers and martyrs for the Palestinian cause.

The PA did nothing for ordinary Arabs, stealing literally billions in international aid to enrich PLO big shots. It did not create the infrastructure for a future state.

The PLO has always been ideologically flexible. It was Arab nationalist while its patrons were Egypt and Syria, Marxist when it needed Soviet aid, and today it is pleased to incite Muslims to murder over the alleged plans of Israel to destroy the al-Aqsa mosque. It even pretends to be interested in building a Western-style democracy to impress the Americans.

But the one aspect of its ideology that has always been the same is its commitment to violently ‘liberating’ Palestine from the Jews, and it has turned all of its institutions to this purpose: schools and universities, mosques, media, arts, literature, sport. All of them focus on teaching the lesson that all the land from the river to the sea is ‘Palestinian’, and the Jews have no claim on any of it.

Israel does not appear on their maps, and they name public squares, schools and sports teams after ‘martyrs’ who have died killing Jews. Their TV programs for childrenencourage young people to die for the cause, while their adult fare repeats blood libels against Jews from the Middle Ages. Although the PLO under Arafat and now Abbas has promised since the early days of Oslo to stop incitement against Jews and Israel, it has never taken even the smallest step to do so.

The PLO created the generation that goes out every day hoping to kill, and left us no choice but to send armed soldiers against them. The PLO made the bloody world that Israelis and Palestinians are living in today.

But apparently neither side has learned the lesson of the last two decades. The Palestinians have not learned that terrorism will not make us leave, but will only cause us to take stronger and stronger measures to protect ourselves.

And the Israelis? Well, a few days ago it was revealed that Yitzhak Herzog, head of the Labor Party (I can’t bring myself to call it the ‘Zionist Union’), following in the treasonous footsteps of Yossi Beilin and Shimon Peres, carried on secret negotiations with Mahmoud Abbas, and proposed a deal in which Israel would transfer all but 4% of Judea and Samaria to the PA/PLO, divide Jerusalem, give the Arabs sovereignty on the Temple Mount, and (my favorite part) ‘fight terrorism’ with a combined force of Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians! Luckily, Herzog lost the election, and recent polls show that the Labor Party is at a historic low in voter approval.

All this is a tragedy. Jews and Arabs can live, if not together, at least in proximity. But not if the Palestinian leadership will continue to be the eliminationist PLO. And certainly not if Israel continues to support and empower the PLO, instead of crushing it for once and for all.

Bron: http://www.abuyehuda.com

 

KING SOLOMON’S WALL EXCAVATED / KONING SALOMO’S MUUR OPGEGRAVEN

This video is dedicated to the idiots of UNESCO, France and the other countries that voted for the UNESCO lie that the Temple Mount had no Jewish heritage in their feverish efforts to gift it to a future Palestine.

Deze video is opgedragen aan de idioten van de UNESCO, Frankrijk en de andere landen die voor de UNESCO leugen stemden dat de Tempelberg geen Joods erfgoed is in hun koortsachtige pogingen om het aan een toekomstig Palestina te geven.

Israel and “Palestine”: What International Law Requires

by Louis René Beres
May 12, 2016 at 5:00 am


  • Under relevant international law, a true state must always possess the following specific qualifications: (1) a permanent population; (2) a defined territory; (3) a government; and (4) the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
  • While this contingent condition of prior demilitarization of a Palestinian state may at first sound reassuring, it represents little more than a impotent legal expectation.
  • For one thing, no new state is ever under any obligation to remain “demilitarized,” whatever else it may have actually agreed to during its particular pre-state incarnation.
  • “The legality of the presence of Israel’s communities the area (Judea and Samaria) stems from the historic, indigenous, and legal rights of the Jewish people to settle in the area, granted pursuant to valid and binding international legal instruments, recognized and accepted by the international community. These rights cannot be denied or placed in question.” — Ambassador Alan Baker, Israeli legal expert.

International law has one overarching debility. No matter how complex the issues, virtually everyone able to read feels competent to offer an authoritative legal opinion. While, for example, no sane person would ever explain or perform cardio-thoracic surgery without first undergoing rigorous medical training, nearly everyone feels competent to interpret complex meanings of the law.

This debility needs to be countered, at least on a case by case basis. In the enduring controversy over Palestinian statehood, there are significant rules to be considered. For a start, on November 29, 2012, the General Assembly voted to upgrade the Palestinian Authority (PA) to the status of a “Nonmember Observer State.”

Although it is widely believed by many self-defined “experts” that this elevation by United Nations has already represented a formal bestowal of legal personality, that belief is incorrect. Under law, at least, “Palestine” – whatever else one might happen to think of “fairness” – remains outside the community of sovereign states.

This juridical exclusion of “Palestine,” whether welcome or not, on selective political grounds, is evident “beyond a reasonable doubt.” The authoritative criteria of statehood that express this particular exclusion are long-standing and without ambiguity. Under relevant international law, a true state must always possess the following specific qualifications: (1) a permanent population; (2) a defined territory; (3) a government; and (4) the capacity to enter into relations with other states.

Moreover, the formal existence of a state is always independent of recognition by other states. According to the 1934 Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (the Montevideo Convention):

“Even before recognition, the state has the right to defend its integrity and independence, to provide for its conservation and prosperity, and consequently to organize itself as it sees fit….”

It follows that even a Palestinian state that would fail to meet codified Montevideo expectations could simply declare otherwise, and then act accordingly, “to defend its integrity and independence….”

More than likely, any such “defending” would subsequently involve incessant war and terror against “Occupied Palestine,” also known as Israel. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed in 1964, three years before there supposedly were any “Israeli Occupied Territories.” What, then, exactly, was the PLO trying to “liberate?”

Whenever the PA finally decides it is time openly to declare statehood, certain explicitMontevideo standards and corollary criteria of statehood will need to be invoked.

Much as the Government of Israel, seeking to challenge any such adversarial PA declaration, will then cite correctly multiple Oslo Agreement violations. The PA will counter-argue that its particular right to declare an independent state of Palestine is nonetheless fundamental, or “peremptory.” The PA will surely add as a footnote that its right of statehood according to jus cogens (“certain fundamental, overriding principles of international law, from which no derogation is ever permitted”) simply overrides all previously-existing expectations of a just peace with Israel.

Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, U.S. President Bill Clinton, and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on September 13, 1993. (Image source: Vince Musi / The White House)

Undoubtedly, among other matters, the PA will cite (1) the plainly non-treaty quality of the Oslo Agreements (per definitions of “treaty” at the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties), and to (2) those basic and allegedly immutable human rights under international law that concern “self‑determination” and “national liberation.”

Now, of course, Prime Minister Netanyahu seems to have acknowledged the eventual creation of Palestine, but, among other things, only on the seemingly prudent condition of antecedent Palestinian “demilitarization.”

While this contingent condition may at first sound reassuring, it effectively represents little more than a contrived and ultimately impotent legal expectation. For one thing, no new state is ever under any obligation to remain “demilitarized,” whatever else it may have actually agreed to during its particular pre-state incarnation. For another, there is no discernible reason to believe that “Palestine” would ever make good on any of its pre-independence promises to Israel to support the Jewish State’s equally basic right to “peace and security.”

For “Palestine,” following formal statehood, the struggle with Israel would continue to be conceptualized as zero-sum; that is, on the corrosive assumption that absolutely any gain for Israel would represent a corresponding loss for Palestine. It could claim it was defending itself against anyone, including terrorist groups, and remain within its rights.[1]

Under the Montevideo Convention, all states are legally equal, enjoy the same rights, and have equal capacity in their exercise. The moment that the PA should proceed to declare a State of Palestine, the new country could become the effective juridical equal of Israel. To best maintain its indispensable national interests in such circumstances, Israel should insist that Palestine’s borders never be based upon pre-1967 lines.

A perfect core summation of such insistence is provided in the February 10, 2013 words of Israeli legal expert, Ambassador Alan Baker:

“The legality of the presence of Israel’s communities in the area (Judea and Samaria) stems from the historic, indigenous, and legal rights of the Jewish people to settle in the area, granted pursuant to valid and binding international legal instruments, recognized and accepted by the international community. These rights cannot be denied or placed in question.”

Accordingly, Israel should clearly affirm that Israeli “settlement activity” is in fact fully consistent with binding international law. Any contrary affirmation by a still-aspiring “Palestine” would be founded upon specious misrepresentations of this critical law.

Louis René Beres is Emeritus Professor of International Law at Purdue University. His just-published new book is titled Surviving Amid Chaos: Israel’s Nuclear Strategy. lberes@purdue.edu


[1] Over the years, a number of cases in United States federal courts have rejected the idea that the PLO, as “parent” of the PA, is in any way recognizable as the legitimate core of an independent Palestinian state. Earlier, perhaps, capable Israeli lawyers and policymakers might have been able to refer to such American case law in compelling support of an argument against Palestinian statehood. Today, however, after Oslo, and after so many years of incremental Israeli recognition of PLO/PA authority as legitimate, Israel will have to base its well-founded opposition to “Palestine” on other grounds.

Bron: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org

gatestone-logo

Uw mening gevraagd over Israël en de Palestijnen

Sinds kort kunt u op deze website uw mening geven over veel verschillende onderwerpen. We hebbenervoor gekozen slechts een JA of NEE antwoord toe te staan op een zin die wij zo helder mogelijk proberen te formuleren. Deze aanpak heeft voor- en nadelen. Het nadeel is dat het leven altijd veel gecompliceerder is dan in één vraag kan worden weergegeven. Het voordeel is dat allen die de vragen beantwoordengedwongen worden hun antwoord te beperken tot de essentie van hun mening. Als u dat wilt kunt u echteruw standpunt ook uitleggen.

Vandaag twee vragen m.b.t. Israël en de Palestijnen. In de toekomst volgen meer vragen m.b.t. dit thema. Als u suggesties hebt voor vragen die wij aan de bezoekers van deze site kunnen voorleggen dan vernemen wij die graag.

Redactie Uitdaging

Enquete:
009- Israël moet een Palestijnse Staat toestaan.
010-De Palestijnen moeten de Staat Israël erkennen.

Het Midden-Oosten Conflict in minder dan 2.000 woorden!

Bron: http://www.uitdaging.nl

 

 

Luxury Alongside Poverty in the Palestinian Authority

House of Palestinian businessman Mohamed Abdel-Hadi

In communities throughout the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank, a surprising degree of luxury exists alongside the poverty. This study includes “A Photo Album of Palestinian Luxury in the West Bank,” offering a more complete picture of living standards there. The truth is that alongside the slums of the old refugee camps, which the Palestinian government has done little to rehabilitate, a parallel Palestinian society is emerging.

Researchers: Yael Kaplan, Ryan Hartney, and Andrew Felsenthal

Contents:

Introduction
Palestinian Refugees
The Other Side of the West Bank Palestinian Story
Palestinian Quality of Life in the West Bank – Indicators
Foreign Aid
Poverty
Life Expectancy
Infant Mortality
Literacy
Education
Water Resources
Palestinian Employment in Israel
Happiness
A Photo Album of Palestinian Luxury in the West Bank
Ramallah
Nablus
Bethlehem
Hebron
Jenin
Tubas
Tulkarem
Kalkilya
Turmus Ayya
Rawabi
Mazraa ash-Sharqiya
Birzeit
Jericho
Kharas

Introduction

When we think of the Palestinian areas of the West Bank, we think of refugee camps like these.

Balata refugee camp near Nablus

Balata refugee camp near Nablus

Beit Jibrin refugee camp in Bethlehem

Jenin refugee camp

Deheishe refugee camp in Bethlehem

Palestinian Refugees

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) defines a refugee as someone who, “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.”6

The UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) defines Palestinians as “persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.” The descendants of male Palestinian refugees, including adopted children, are also eligible for registration. When the Agency began operations in 1950, it was responding to the needs of about 750,000 Palestine refugees. Today, some 5 million Palestine refugees are eligible for UNRWA services. 7

This unorthodox UNRWA definition of “refugee” eternalizes the Palestinian refugee problem. Sixty-three years is time enough for three, perhaps four, generations. Imagine the grandchildren or great-grandchildren of Jewish refugees who came to the U.S. after the Holocaust referring to themselves as refugees.8

Moreover, given the UN definition of a refugee is someone “outside the country of his nationality,” how can there be refugees living within the Palestinian Authority?

As of July 1, 2014, 762,288 refugees were said to be living in 19 camps spread out in the West Bank.9 Over the past 67 years the UN and the U.S. have poured billions into the camps to upgrade living conditions. What Palestinian advocates like to call “camp shelters” are typically 4-5 story concrete apartment buildings with electricity, kitchens, satellite television and municipal garbage collection.  According to the UN, 99.8% of camp shelters are “connected to water networks” and 87% are “connected to sewerage networks.”10

The Economist reported that by 2013 almost 70 percent of West Bank Palestinian refugees lived outside the refugee camps.11  However, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) seeks to maintain the camps and opposes and prevents refugee resettlement. As the PLO slogan goes, A Palestinian refugee never moves out of his camp except to return home (i.e., to Israel). 12

Unlike all other refugees in previous centuries who were absorbed in their countries of residence, the issue of Palestinian refugees remains on the world agenda due to a political decision by the Arab states to keep them as “refugees.”

After the 1948 war, Jordan and Egypt could have absorbed the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, which they controlled as part of their own countries. Yet the political motivations of the Arabs for keeping the Palestinian refugee issue alive are clear. Both Arab governments and the Arab League opposed granting citizenship to Palestinian refugees in their countries because it would undermine the use of the right of return to eliminate the Jewish state. The end result was that the Palestinian refugees became political pawns.13

This fact was stated succinctly by the former head of UNRWA, Ralph Galloway: “The Arab states do not want to solve the refugee problem. They want to keep it as an open sore, as an affront to the UN, and as a weapon against Israel. Arab leaders do not give a damn whether Arab refugees live or die.”14

Moreover, calling these people refugees makes no sense. Few if any live in tent camps or temporary residences. Most own their homes and live in areas of towns that can be classified as working class neighborhoods. Rather than refugees, they are simply the recipients of assistance, mainly for education and health.15

The Other Side of the West Bank Palestinian Story

There is more to this story, a side often overlooked. In communities throughout the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank, a surprising degree of luxury exists alongside the poverty. After receiving billions of dollars in Western aid over many decades, major improvements are visible in the standard of living in the West Bank, as seen in newly-constructed buildings, late-model cars, and luxury items.

This study offers an often overlooked window into life in the Palestinian Authority. The empirical data, together with the photographic evidence sourced here, provide a more complete picture of living standards in the West Bank.  The truth is that alongside the slums of the old refugee camps, which the Palestinian government has done little to rehabilitate, a parallel Palestinian society is emerging.

Marwan Asmar, a Jordan-based journalist with a PhD in political science from Leeds University in the UK, described this phenomenon upon returning to the West Bank after 30 years:

There has been a total transformation since I was last in Howara in the West Bank in 1985. One can see a buzz of activity at the shops, restaurants, offices and cafes. This wasn’t the sleepy village I saw long ago. Buildings, villas, mosques and rest areas have been constructed everywhere. There is even a swimming pool.

This was certainly not the picture I had in mind. This was not the picture the media presents – of Palestinians surviving on daily wages of $2 as pointed out by the World Bank, of high unemployment and pockets of poverty. The people I spoke to here said many worked as laborers in Israel and were paid high daily wages. This is how they could build their houses, they told me.16

As speculation continues about renewing the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, it is important to understand how the quality of life in the West Bank has improved and how a new Palestinian society is emerging – one that requires a changed perception of the reality of Palestinian life.

While the Arab world is in the throes of a major melt-down – with widespread violence and destruction in Syria and Iraq, together with serious instability in Lebanon and Egypt – daily life for Arabs in the West Bank offers a stark contrast to those scenes of violence and decline.

Palestinian Quality of Life in the West Bank – Indicators

Foreign Aid

Since the establishment of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza in the mid-1990s, the U.S. government has committed approximately $5 billion in bilateral assistance to the Palestinians, who are among the world’s largest per capita recipients of international foreign aid.17 Overall, Palestinians receive approximately $2 billion in aid each year.18 Palestinian economic analysts estimate that the PA has received a total of $25 billion in financial aid during the past two decades.19

Poverty

The CIA World Factbook reported the poverty rate in the West Bank as 18% in 2011,20 in contrast to Israel’s poverty rate in 2012 of 21%.21

Life Expectancy

In 2015, life expectancy in the West Bank was 76 years.22  This was notably higher than the life expectancy in Arab states of 71 years (in 2012), and the average life expectancy around the world of 70 years.23

Infant Mortality

In 2015, the infant mortality rate in the West Bank and Gaza was 13 per 1,000 live births,24 compared with 27 per 1,000 live births in the Arab states in 2013 and 36.58 per 1,000 live births in the world in 2014.25

Literacy

In 2015 the literacy rate for people aged 15 and above in the West Bank and Gaza was 96.5%.26

Education

In 2011, when Palestinians were asked “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the education system?” 63.5% answered “satisfied”, a higher percentage than the U.S. (62.8), Netherlands (60.3), Sweden (61.6) or Japan (54.6).27  The overall percentage in Arab states was 50.0%.28

Water Resources29

Palestinians insist that they suffer from water shortages due to Israeli policies. However, data shows that Israel has fulfilled all of its obligations according to the signed water agreements with the PA. The development of water supply systems for Palestinian communities has been carried out on an extensive scale, much larger than that called for in the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.

From 1967-1995 (prior to the signing of the Interim Agreement), the total amount of water supplied to the Palestinians in Judea and Samaria increased from 66 to 120 million cubic meters per year. This additional water was mainly used for domestic consumption. During this period, the number of towns and villages connected to running water through modern supply systems increased from four to 309 communities. In March 2010, 641 of 708 Palestinian communities, which include more than 96 percent of the Palestinian population, were found to be connected to a running water network. Water supply networks for an additional 16 villages (encompassing an additional 2.5 percent of the population) were under construction.

Palestinians claim that the water consumption of the average Israeli is four times greater than that of the average Palestinian. However, this claim is not factually supported. In 1967, there was indeed a large gap in the per capita consumption of water between Israelis and Palestinians due to the ancient water supply systems that existed in the West Bank under British and then Jordanian rule, which needed upgrading. This gap, however, was reduced during the Israeli administration period and the difference is now negligible. The per capita consumption of natural, fresh water in Israel is 150 m3/c/y and in the PA 140 m3/c/y.

In Jordan and Syria, most towns and villages are still not connected to running water. In Amman and Damascus, water distribution takes place only once or twice each week. According to the PA, roughly 33.6 percent of their water leaks from internal pipelines, compared with 11 percent in Israel. Moreover, the Palestinians have violated their part of the water agreements by refusing to build sewage treatment plants (despite available international financing). Thus, raw sewage discharged from Palestinian communities flows freely in many streams in the West Bank.

Palestinian Employment in Israel30

In 2014, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, the official newspaper of the Palestinian Authority, published an article lauding Israeli employers for their treatment of Palestinian workers in Israel. The article stated, “Whenever Palestinian workers have the opportunity to work for Israeli employers, they are quick to quit their jobs with their Palestinian employers – for reasons having to do with salaries and other rights….The salaries of workers employed by Palestinians amount to less than half the salaries of those who work for Israeli employers.”

“The [Israeli] work conditions are very good, and include transportation, medical insurance and pensions. These things do not exist with Palestinian employers….Muhammad Al-Hinnawi, a construction worker, says: ‘I receive a daily salary of 70 shekels, without pension, and I have no other choice.’ By contrast, Thaer Al-Louzi, who used to work for an Israeli concrete factory, notes: ‘I received a salary of 140 shekels a day. Now, after I was injured, I receive a salary through the insurance.’”

According to Bassem Eid, founder of the Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group, 92,000 Arabs from the West Bank work in Israel each day.31

Happiness

According to the 2012 Happy Planet Index – a survey conducted by the New Economics Forum to measure happiness around the world – the Palestinian Authority was the third happiest Arab country and the 30th happiest in the world, making the PA happier than many developed countries like the U.S., UK, Sweden, Australia and Canada.

  1. Algeria – 52.2
  2. Jordan – 51.7
  3. Palestinian Authority – 51.2
  4. Iraq – 49.2
  5. Tunisia – 48.3
  6. Morocco – 47.9
  7. Syria – 47.1
  8. Saudi Arabia – 46.0
  9. Yemen – 43.0
  10. Lebanon – 42.9
  11. Libya – 40.8
  12. Egypt – 39.6
  13. Sudan – 37.6
  14. Djibouti – 37.2
  15. Comoros – 36.5
  16. Mauritania – 32.3
  17. UAE – 31.8
  18. Kuwait – 27.1
  19. Bahrain – 26.6
  20. Qatar – 25.232

A Photo Album of Palestinian Luxury in the West Bank

Completing the Picture of Palestinian Life in the West Bank33

Ramallah’s landscape is undergoing a transformation. Multi-story villas fronted by ornamental porticos and columns are rising on Ramallah’s hilltops along with glass and marble office buildings. There are newly paved roads. Mövenpick Hotels & Resorts opened Ramallah’s first five-star hotel. The 172-room, $40 million hotel boasts a head chef imported from Florence, a pastry chef from Paris, and a lobby bedecked in marble and Italian suede.

Across the West Bank, similar scenes are unfolding. Building cranes pierce the sky. Outside Nablus, new car dealerships sell everything from BMWs to Hyundais. In Ramallah, the Mercedes dealership does a brisk business selling luxury-class sports cars and sport-utility vehicles to wealthy Palestinians with sticker prices ranging from $100,000 to $200,000. The Hirbawi Home Center opened just outside Jenin. The five-story shopping mall cost $5 million. Fireworks marked the opening. On the fifth floor in-demand electric gadgets may be found: enormous TV screens, vacuum cleaners, espresso machines. The prices are not much cheaper than in Israel, perhaps except for the furniture. One can find china plates, crystal, and classical furniture. The chain’s CEO, Ziad Turabi, says, “We believe we can make a very handsome profit. Many people in the…territories have money but they have nowhere to spend it if they’re after quality. We offer them the best quality there is.”

This may not sound like the familiar description of the West Bank – the impoverished Palestinian village or the overcrowded refugee camp, a population sustaining itself on international aid. But it turns out that quite a few Palestinians consider a plasma screen, a surround sound stereo and comfortable chairs to be fairly essential items.

The West Bank: Cities and Towns Featured in the Photos

The West Bank

Ramallah

“In Ramallah it is difficult to get a table in a good restaurant. There are new apartment buildings, banks, brokerage firms, luxury car dealerships and health clubs.”34

The Palestine Trade Tower in Ramallah

Bank of Palestine in Ramallah

Padico House in Ramallah

ASAL Technologies building in Ramallah

Palestine Red Crescent Building in Ramallah

Jawwal cell phone company in el-Bireh, next to Ramallah

Ramallah tower

Bank of Palestine

Plaza Mall in Al Bireh just north of Ramallah

Kerish Motor Mall in Beitunia, 3 km. west of Ramallah

The house of Yusuf al-Kifayah in Beitunia

Arab Mansion in Ramallah

Ramallah

The Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center in Ramallah

The Dubai building in Ramallah’s upscale Al-Masyoun neighborhood

A villa in Ramallah

Ethiad, a new district of Ramallah

Movenpick Hotel in Ramallah

Movenpick Hotel in Ramallah

An event hall in the Moevenpick Hotel in Ramallah

Movenpick Hotel in Ramallah

Grand Park Hotel, Ramallah

The Caesar Hotel, Ramallah

Sky Land Park in Ramallah

The Palestinian President’s Headquarters at Al Muqata'a in Ramallah

Al Muqata’a - Palestinian Authority Headquarters

Yasser Arafat’s mausoleum in Ramallah

Nablus

The West Bank’s largest city, Nablus, is bursting with energy, life and signs of prosperity. Bashir al-Shakah, director of Nablus’s gleaming Cinema City, where four of the latest Hollywood hits were playing, said most movies were sold out. In downtown Nablus the shops and restaurants were full. There were plenty of expensive cars on the streets. Indeed, there were considerably more BMWs and Mercedes than in downtown Jerusalem or Tel Aviv.62

Mansion of Munib Al Masri’s in Nablus

An-Najah National University Hospital in Nablus

The Tuqan Building in Nablus

The Nablus Mall

Nablus Mall

Wasef Al-Haj Ahmed Amer Company Building in Nablus

Marwan Jomaa’s villa in Nablus

Khalid Abaza’s villa in Nablus

Al Aker Kindergarten in Nablus

Bethlehem

Villa in Beit Jala, in the Bethlehem Governorate

Villa in Beit Jala, in the Bethlehem Governorate

Villa in Beit Jala, in the Bethlehem Governorate

The balcony of the Jacir Palace Hotel overlooking the Deheishe Refugee Camp near Bethlehem

The Jacir Palace Hotel in Bethlehem

The Jacir Palace Hotel in Bethlehem

Grand Park Hotel in Bethlehem

St. Vincent Guest House in Bethlehem

The Bethlehem Museum

Hebron

“The shops and restaurants were full in Hebron. Villas comparable in size to those on the Cote d’Azur or Bel Air had sprung up on the hills around the city.”81

Hebron

Bank of Palestine in Hebron

Hebron Plaza Shopping Center

The City Center complex in Hebron

Manara Square in Hebron

Hussain Ben Ali Stadium, Hebron

Near Sakha Square in Hebron

Hebron University entrance

Hebron covered in snow on December 13, 2013

Hebron, March 2015

Hebron, March 2015

Sa’ir Municipality, north of Hebron

Jenin

The Arab American University of Jenin

Ibrahim Haddad’s Villa in Jenin

Tubas

House of Muhannad Al-Hadiri in Tubas

The Maslmani villa in Tubas

Tulkarem

The Tayeh Building in Tulkarem

Villa Thabet Omar in Tulkarem

Iyad Qasem Villa in Tulkarem

Palestine Technical University in Tulkarem

Kalkilya

The Mecca project in Kalkilya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Ahmed Kassem in front of his villa of in the West Bank village of Turmus Aya

Home of Taiseer Alkam in Turmus Aya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Turmus Ayya

Rawabi

The new Palestinian city of Rawabi

The new city of Rawabi

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya Villa

Marzaa ash-Sharqiya villa

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya villa

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya (under construction)

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya

Mazraa ash-Sharqiya Sports Complex

Birzeit

Birzeit University

Jericho

Bab ash-Shams resort near Jericho

Jericho Village resort

Kharas

House of Palestinian businessman Mohamed Abdel-Hadi

Kharas

Kharas

Kharas

 

* * *

Notes

1. Khaled Abu Toameh, “PA Arrests Residents of West Bank’s Balata Refugee Camp, Sparking Unrest in Area,” Jerusalem Post, April 13, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Gunmen-from-the-Balata-refugee-camp-396946

2. Annainthemiddleeast.com, “Balata Refugee Camp,” http://annainthemiddleeast.com/photos/refugee_camps/balata/134/

3. DennisFox.Net, “Dennis Fox’s Israel/Palestine Photos,” December 29, 2004, http://photo.dennisfox.net/galleries/2005/israelpalestine/refugeecamps/pages/page_2.html

4. DennisFox.Net, “Dennis Fox’s Israel/Palestine Photos,” January 8, 2005, http://photo.dennisfox.net/galleries/2005/israelpalestine/refugeecamps/pages/page_19.html

5. Ruben’s Blog, “Be Seeing You!” August 14, 2010, https://rubenopreis.wordpress.com/

6. UNHCR, “Refugees: Flowing Across Borders,” http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c125.html

7. UNRWA, “Palestine Refugees,” http://www.unrwa.org/palestine-refugees

8. Peter Wilson, “The Myth of the Palestinian ‘Refugee Camps’,” American Thinker, May 24, 2011, http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2011/05/the_myth_of_the_palestinian_re.html

9. UNRWA, “Where We Work,” July 1, 2014, http://www.unrwa.org/where-we-work/west-bank

10. Wilson, “The Myth of the Palestinian ‘Refugee Camps’.”

11. “A New Type of Settlement,” The Economist, October 12, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21587846-some-palestinians-want-their-people-abandon-refugee-camps-without-demanding

12. Alex Safian, “Why Palestinians Still Live in Refugee Camps,” Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=18&x_article=960

13. Sidney Zabludoff, “The Palestinian Refugee Issue: Rhetoric vs. Reality,” Jewish Political Studies Review, v. 20, no. 1-2 (Spring 2008),  http://jcpa.org/article/the-palestinian-refugee-issue-rhetoric-vs-reality/

14. Terence Prittie, “Middle East Refugees,” in Michael Curtis et al., eds., The Palestinians: People History, Politics (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1975), p. 71.

15. Zabludoff, “The Palestinian Refugee Issue.”

16. Marwan Asmar, “A Trip into the Heart of Palestine,” Gulf News (Dubai), June 17, 2015, http://gulfnews.com/culture/people/a-trip-into-the-heart-of-palestine-1.1536536.

17. Jim Zanotti, “U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians,” Congressional Research Service, July 3, 2014, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS22967.pdf..

18. Global Humanitarian Assistance, “Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2015,” June 2015, http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/GHA-Report-2015_-Interactive_Online.pdf p – 141

19. Khaled Abu Toameh, “What Are Palestinians Doing with U.S. Money?,” Gatestone Institute, August 19, 2015, http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/6353/palestinians-us-aid

20. CIA, “The World Factbook: West Bank,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 6, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html

21. CIA, “The World Factbook: Israel,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 10, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/is.html

22. CIA, “The World Factbook: West Bank,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 6, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html

23. UNDP, “Human Development Report 2013,” UNDP, 2013, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf p – 25

24. CIA, “The World Factbook: West Bank,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 6, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html

25. CIA, “The World Factbook: World,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 6, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html The World Bank, “Arab World,” Word Bank Group, Date Unknown, http://data.worldbank.org/region/ARB

26. CIA, “The World Factbook: West Bank,” Central Intelligence Agency, August 6, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html

27. UNDP, “Human Development Report 2013,” UNDP, 2013, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf p – 171

28. UNDP, “Human Development Report 2013,” UNDP, 2013, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf p – 40

29. Haim Gvirtzman, “The Israeli-Palestinian Water Conflict: An Israeli Perspective,” Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University, January 2012, http://www.biu.ac.il/SOC/besa/MSPS94.pdf. The writer is a professor of hydrology at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a member of the Israel Water Authority Council.

30. Itamar Marcus and Nan Jacques Zilberdik. “Official PA Daily Lauds Israel’s Treatment of Palestinian Workers – PMW Bulletins,” http://www.palwatch.org. Palestinian Media Watch, September 23, 2014. http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=157&doc_id=12696, See also “Palestinian Workers Treated Better in Israel,” I24news.tv. September 24, 2014 http://www.i24news.tv/en/news/international/middle-east/44941-140924-palestinian-workers-treated-better-in-israel

31. “Palestinian Human Rights Campaigner Excoriates Palestinian Leadership,” J-Wire, August 27, 2015, http://www.jwire.com.au/palestinian-human-rights-campaigner-excoriates-palestinian-leadership/

32. Happy Planet Index, “The Data,” Happy Planet Index, 2012, http://www.happyplanetindex.org/data/

33. Stacy Perman, “A National Economy – Without the Nation, Time, October 11, 2010, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2022572-1,00.html; “How Palestinians Really Live.” San Francisco Sentinel. December 20, 2010, http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/?p=99842; Avi Issacharoff, “Luxury Palestinian Mall Signals Transformation of ‘Terror Capital’,” Ha’aretz, June 21, 2009, http://www.haaretz.com/beta/luxury-palestinian-mall-signals-transformation-of-terror-capital-1.278478; Tom Gross Mideast Media Analysis, “When we talked about ‘Starvation’ we Meant Plasma TVs and Café Latte,” October 19, 2010, http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/mideastdispatches/archives/001144.html

34. Tom Gross, “Building Peace without Obama’s Interference,” Wall Street Journal Europe, December 2, 2009, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704107104574571491401847518

35. Booking.Com, “فندق فلسطين بلازا” April 1, 2014, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/palestine-plaza.ar.html

36. IsraelArabConflict, “Snapshots from ‘Poor’ Palestine,” February 14, 2014, http://hthor.blogspot.co.il/2014/02/thanks-for-your-valuable-contribution.html

37. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/83365135

38. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/87638784

39. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/21842336

40. Palestine Cellular Communications Co.,Ltd “Jawwal,” http://www.pita.ps/content/palestine-cellular-communications-coltd-%E2%80%9Cjawwal%E2%80%9D

41. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/52173672

42. Facebook, “Kay Wilson,” July 11, https://www.facebook.com/kishkushkay/posts/10153041292793927

43. Pam Olson, “Fast Times in Palestine,” http://www.pamolson.org/photos.htm

44. Wikimapia, “Kerish Motor Mall (Beitunia),” http://wikimapia.org/30485223/Kerish-Motor-Mall

45. Wikimapia, “Beitunia Recent Photos,” http://beitunia.wikimapia.org/en/photos/

46. Panoramio, “Big Mansion in Ramallah,” http://www.panoramio.com/photo/5874415

47. Elder of Zion, “Documenting the Differences Between Opulent Ramallah and a Squalid UNRWA Camp,” July 13, 2015, http://elderofziyon.blogspot.co.il/2015/07/documenting-differences-between-opulent.html?utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterfeed#.VaOw5_lVikp

48. Facebook, “Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center,” June 5, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/pages/Khalil-Sakakini-Cultural-Center/378848385477392?sk=info

49. Nabali Fares, “مشروع دبي”, http://nabalifares.ps/index.php/2014-09-28-20-53-27/2014-10-01-19-38-08/item/231-2014-10-01-19-57-29.html

50. 4321 Property, “Villa Ramalah,” http://www.4321property.com/palestine/ad694731/ (Accessed on August 23, 2015)

51.Julien Goldstein Photographer, “Ramallah,” http://www.juliengoldstein.com/portfolio/stories/ramallah/

52. Flickr, “Movenpick Hotel Ramallah,” July 11, 2012, https://www.flickr.com/photos/audunbakkeandersen/7627684540

53. Booking.Com “فندق موفنبيك رام الله” March 3, 2011, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/moevenpick-ramallah.html

54.Movenpick Hotels & Resorts, “Movenpick Hotel Ramallah,” http://www.moevenpick-hotels.com/ar/middle-east/palestine/ramallah/hotel-ramallah/meetings/

55. Yamsafer, “Movenpick Hotel Ramallah,” https://www.yamsafer.me/en/Palestine/Ramallah/hotel/m%C3%B6venpick-hotel-ramallah#/

56. Grand Park Hotel, “Wedding,” http://www.grandpark.com/etemplate.php?id=44&menu=124

57. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/52173506

58. Facebook, “Sky Land Park,” August 25, https://www.facebook.com/skyland.p/photos/pb.1581401882138533.-2207520000.1441094547./1645352909076763/?type=3&theater

59. PECDAR, “The Presidential Office in Ramallah,” http://www.pecdar.ps/etemplate.php?id=832

60. The Times of Israel, “Abbas Announces Broad Probe into Palestinian NGOs,” December 8, 2014, http://www.timesofisrael.com/abbas-announces-broad-probe-into-palestinian-ngos/

61.Around the World in 80 Clicks, “Arafat Mausoleum,” May 2008, http://www.traveladventures.org/continents/asia/arafat-mausoleum.html

62. Tom Gross, “Building Peace without Obama’s Interference,” Wall Street Journal Europe, December 2, 2009, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704107104574571491401847518

63. Arizona Jewish Post, “From his West Bank Italian Villa Palestinian Billionare Munib al-Masri Calls for Peace,” November 13, 2012, http://azjewishpost.com/2012/from-his-west-bank-italian-villa-palestinian-billionaire-munib-al-masri-calls-for-peace/.

64. An-Najah National University Hospital, “Services,” http://hospital.najah.edu/en/services/

65. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” January 26, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/a.396695480423410.90547.377223399037285/399474210145537/?type=3&theater

66. Bntpal.com, “جولة في مدينتي نابلس/ دمشق الصغرى”, February 21, 2014, http://www.bntpal.com/vb/t41233/

67. Tom Gross Mideast Media Analysis, “When We Talked About ‘Starvation’ we Meant Plasma TVs and Café Latte,” October 19, 2010, http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/mideastdispatches/archives/001144.html

68. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” November 9, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/a.396695480423410.90547.377223399037285/536666319759658/?type=3&theater

69. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” April 14, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/a.396695480423410.90547.377223399037285/436887549737536/?type=3&theater

70. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” January 21, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/pb.377223399037285.-2207520000.1438852010./396698443756447/?type=3&theater

71. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” January 21, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/a.396695480423410.90547.377223399037285/396698433756448/?type=3&theater

72. Great Mirror, “Notes on the Geography of the West Bank: Bethlehem 2: the New City: Photo 5,” http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=450&chapterid=454&picid=5&picturesize=masters

73. Great Mirror, “Notes on the Geography of the West Bank: Bethlehem 2: the New City: Photo 4,” http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=450&chapterid=454&picid=4&picturesize=big

74.Great Mirror, “Notes on the Geography of the West Bank: Bethlehem 2: the New City: Photo 6,” http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=450&chapterid=454&picid=6&picturesize=masters

75. Rhonda Spivak, “First Hand Account: A Balcony With a View: Five Star Luxury Overlooks Deheishe Palestinian Refugee Camp: It’s Time for UNRWA Reform,” WinnipegJewishReview.com, June 16, 2011, http://www.winnipegjewishreview.com/article_detail.cfm?id=1277

76. Booking.Com, “فندق قصر جاسر” April 4, 2011, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/jacir-palace-intercontinental-bethlehem.ar.html?aid=357009;label=gog235jc-region-XX-ps-westNbank-unspec-il-com-L%3Aar-O%3Aunk-B%3Aunk-N%3Ayes-S%3Abo-U%3Asalo;sid=b32f5b8d043d26fb66912dccf1861c31;dcid=4;dist=0;sb_price_type=total;srfid=6110f186763e3b277f58d6bce3b8cd00153a6094X12;type=total;ucfs=1&

77. Booking.Com, “فندق قصر جاسر” April 4, 2011, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/jacir-palace-intercontinental-bethlehem.ar.html?aid=357009;label=gog235jc-region-XX-ps-westNbank-unspec-il-com-L%3Aar-O%3Aunk-B%3Aunk-N%3Ayes-S%3Abo-U%3Asalo;sid=b32f5b8d043d26fb66912dccf1861c31;dcid=4;dist=0;sb_price_type=total;srfid=6110f186763e3b277f58d6bce3b8cd00153a6094X12;type=total;ucfs=1&

78. Booking.Com, “Grand Park Hotel Bethlehem,” October 9, 2013, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/grand-park-bethlehem.ar.html?aid=357009;label=gog235jc-region-XX-ps-westNbank-unspec-il-com-L%3Aar-O%3Aunk-B%3Aunk-N%3Ayes-S%3Abo-U%3Asalo;sid=b32f5b8d043d26fb66912dccf1861c31;dcid=1;dist=0;sb_price_type=total;srfid=6110f186763e3b277f58d6bce3b8cd00153a6094X29;type=total;ucfs=1&

79. St. Vincent Guest House-Bethlehem, “Guest House,” http://saintvincentguesthouse.com/en/

80. Palestinian Heritage Foundation, “Events,” http://www.palestineheritage.org/index.htm

81. Tom Gross, “Building Peace without Obama’s Interference,” Wall Street Journal Europe, December 2, 2009, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704107104574571491401847518

82. Hayah.cc, “صور جديدة لمدينة الخليل وندعوكم لزيارتها قريبا”, http://www.hayah.cc/forum/t11961.html

83.http://osaily.com/banks.htm

84.Travelzad, “No Name” March 3, 2010, http://travelzad.net/index.php?action=viewfile&id=151885

85. Osaily Trading Contracting Co, “Hebron City Center/ Hebron,” http://www.osaily.com/centers.htm

86. Hayah.cc, “صور جديدة لمدينة الخليل وندعوكم لزيارتها قريبا”, http://www.hayah.cc/forum/t11961.html

87. Travelzad, “No Name,” March 3, 2010, http://travelzad.net/index.php?action=viewfile&id=151891

88. Moon158, “صورة مدينتي مدينة الخليل في فلسطين”, September 20, 2010, http://moon158.yoo7.com/t8567-topic

89. Panoramio, “Hebron University Entrance,” March 22, 2011, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/49838492

90. John Davison, “Spectre of Settlers’ Return Looms over West Bank Neibourhood,” Your Middle East, January 1, 2014, http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/news/spectre-of-settlers-return-looms-over-west-bank-neighbourhood_20528

91. Judy Lash Balint, Hebron, March 2015

92. Judy Lash Balint, Hebron, March 2015

93. Alqudstalk.com, “صورة بلدية سعير/ محافظة الخليل” September 25, 2009, http://www.alqudstalk.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3147

94.The Arab American University of Jenin, “Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences,” http://www.aauj.edu/?q=node/3

95. Flickr, “Ibrahim Haddad’s Villa,” February 24, 2011, https://www.flickr.com/photos/dlisbona/5515306255

96. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/60218177

97. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/pb.377223399037285.-2207520000.1438850207./410809035678721/?type=3&theater

98. Slideshare, “Villa Iyad Qasem, Tulkarm, Palestine”, December 18, 2011, http://www.slideshare.net/jihadawad/buildings-by-jihad-awad

99.World Architecture Community, “Villa Thabet Omar,” July 19, 2009, http://www.worldarchitecture.org/architecture-projects/enhm/villa-thabet-omar-building-page.html

100. Slideshare, “Villa Iyad Qasem, Tulkarm, Palestine”, December 18, 2011, http://www.slideshare.net/jihadawad/buildings-by-jihad-awad

101. Facebook, “Arabex-Arab Experts For Engineering & Consultations,” https://www.facebook.com/377223399037285/photos/a.396695480423410.90547.377223399037285/413359498757008/?type=3&theater

102.Nabali Fares, “مشروع مكة”, http://nabalifares.ps/index.php/2014-09-28-20-53-27/2014-10-01-19-38-08/item/233-2014-10-01-19-58-35.html

103. Wikimapia, “Nice Butefel Villa,” http://wikimapia.org/3986674/nice-butefel-villa

104. A privately owned house in Turmusayya Wikimapia, “ترمسعيا الصور الاخيرة”, http://turmusayya.wikimapia.org/photos/

105. The National, “For Palestinian Americans, Home Brings Little Freedom,” Hugh Naylor, March 31, 2013, http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/for-palestinian-americans-home-brings-little-freedom

106. Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/90913790

107. Mohammad Abu Obeid, “صباحكن/ صباحكم هدوء قرية ترمسعيّا قضاء رام الله إحدى أجمل قرى فلسطين #فلسطين_التراث”, Twitter, https://twitter.com/mobeid/status/585687304402034688

108. One of Turmus Ayya’s sprawling villas. The National, “For Palestinian Americans, Home Brings Little Freedom,” Hugh Naylor, March 31, 2013, http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/for-palestinian-americans-home-brings-little-freedom#full

109. Wikimapia Cityguide, “Turmus Ayya,” http://turmusayya.wikimapia.org/en

110. Wikimapia, “مدرسة ذكور ترمسعيا والارض التابعة لها”, http://wikimapia.org/4826131/%D9%85%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%A9-%D8%B0%D9%83%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A7-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B6-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%87%D8%A7

111. Wikimapia, “Nice Butefel Villa,” http://wikimapia.org/3986674/nice-butefel-villa

112. Israel Advocacy Movement, “Do Palestinians Have the Lowest Standard of Living in the World?” http://www.israeladvocacy.net/knowledge/exposing-lies-of-israeli-discrimination/do-palestinians-have-the-lowest-standard-of-living-in-the-world/

113. About 20 minutes from the Palestinian economic hub of Ramallah, the new city of Rawabi is sprouting.- Judith Sudilovsky, “On the Hills of the West Bank, Building the Good Life for Palestinians,” Franciscan Monastary of the Holy Land in America, http://www.myfranciscan.org/on-the-hills-of-the-west-bank-building-the-good-life-for-palestinians/

114. Hossam Ezzedine, “Palatial Homes Cost Palestinians Dearly,” The Daily Star, November 9, 2012, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Culture/Lifestyle/2012/Nov-09/194428-palatial-homes-cost-palestinians-dearly.ashx

115. Panoramio, “Home Sweat Home,” February 26, 2010, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/32609287

116. Martin Patience, “West Bank’s Own Slice of America,” BBC News, July 30, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6913724.stm

117. BBC Arabic, “بناء المنازل الفخمة في “ميامي الضفة الغربية”, November 16, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/arabic/multimedia/2012/11/121116_westbank_houses.shtml

118. A luxury mansion under construction in the village of Mazraa ash-Sharqiya near the West Bank city of Ramallah. Palestinians who have spent years working overseas are returning home to villages like Mazraa ash-Sharqiya and rewarding themselves with their ideal luxury home.- Hossam Ezzedine, “Luxurious Homes Pop Up in the West Bank,” Your Middle East, November 11, 2012, http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/features/luxurious-homes-pop-up-in-the-west-bank_10855

119. Hossam Ezzedine, “Luxurious Homes Pop Up in the West Bank,” Your Middle East, November 11, 2012, http://www.yourmiddleeast.com/features/luxurious-homes-pop-up-in-the-west-bank_10855

120. Al-Ayam, “الليلة..حفل افتتح المجمع الرياضي لنادي المزرعة الشرقية” August 1, 2015, http://www.al-ayyam.ps/ar_page.php?id=fa0a3d9y262185945Yfa0a3d9

121.Dunia Beam, “Jami’at Birzeit,” http://www.duniabeam.eu/?page_id=778

122. Booking.com, “منتجع باب الشمس” November 3, 2013, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/bab-al-shams-resort.ar.html?aid=357009;label=gog235jc-region-XX-ps-westNbank-unspec-il-com-L%3Aar-O%3Aunk-B%3Aunk-N%3Ayes-S%3Abo-U%3Asalo;sid=b32f5b8d043d26fb66912dccf1861c31;dcid=1;dist=0;sb_price_type=total;srfid=6110f186763e3b277f58d6bce3b8cd00153a6094X41;type=total;ucfs=1&#map_closed

123. Booking.com, “منتجع قرية اريحا السياحية”, July 25, 2013, http://www.booking.com/hotel/ps/jericho-resort-village.ar.html?aid=357009;label=gog235jc-region-XX-ps-westNbank-unspec-il-com-L%3Aar-O%3Aunk-B%3Aunk-N%3Ayes-S%3Abo-U%3Asalo;sid=b32f5b8d043d26fb66912dccf1861c31;dcid=1;dist=0;sb_price_type=total;srfid=6110f186763e3b277f58d6bce3b8cd00153a6094X33;type=total;ucfs=1&

124. http://www.abrrar.net/vb/images/imgcache/2013/02/2185.jpg

125. Welcome to the house of Palestinian businessman Mohamed Abdel-Hadi, located on a hillside near Hebron in the town of Kharas. Photos are from the Alrawwya blog.The home is located on over 30 dunams of land. According to the blog Mohamed Abdel-Hadi made his fortune in the construction industry, and helped oversee the design and the construction. Pro-Israel Bay Bloggers, “Palestine’s Winchester Mystery House,” February 15, 2014, http://proisraelbaybloggers.blogspot.co.il/2014/02/palestines-winchester-mystery-house.html

126. http://proisraelbaybloggers.blogspot.co.il/2014/02/palestines-winchester-mystery-house.html

127. http://proisraelbaybloggers.blogspot.co.il/2014/02/palestines-winchester-mystery-house.html.

Bron: http://jcpa.org